Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Encapsulation of Tinospora cordifolia plant in Ni doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the degradation of malachite green dye

  • Naveen Thakur
  • Nikesh Thakur
  • Kuldeep Kumar
  • Vedpriya Arya
  • Ashwani Kumar


The primary global source of water pollution is textile dyes. Highly stable organic dyes are produced by these industries that are released untreated into nearby ponds, lakes and rivers. This paper is devoted to synthesis of nickle doped anatase phase of TiO2 nanoparticles (Ni-ATD NPs) by encapsulating plant Tinospora cordifolia (TC) through microwave assisted method for degradation of malachite green (MG) dye. The synthesized NPs were calcinated at 400 oC temperature to achieve the anatase phase. The synthesized Ni-ATD NPs were analysed with different characterization methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman analysis confirmed the crystalline nature for Ni-ATD NPs with a tetragonal structure having crystallite size of 11 nm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) determined the spherical surface morphology for synthesized NPs. The absorption peaks of Ni-ATD NPs were originated from 360 to 370 nm from UV-Visible spectroscopy in which the bandgap was found to be 3.45 eV. The photocatalytic activity for MG dye was evaluated under ultra-violet (UV) light using Ni-ATD NPs for 90 minutes which exhibited the degradation up to 100 %.



  1. Anu, Thakur, N., and Kumar, J., 2018. Synthesis and characterization of pure and Zn-doped copper oxide nanoparticles. International Journal of Advance Research in Science and Engineering, 7(8), pp.1-5.
  2. Anu, Thakur, N., Kumar, K. and Sharma, K.K., 2020. Application of Co-doped copper oxide nanoparticles against different multidrug resistance bacteria. Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry, 50(10), pp.933-943.
  3. Assayehegn, E., Solaiappan, A., Chebude, Y. and Alemayehu, E., 2020. Fabrication of tunable anatase/rutile heterojunction N/TiO2 nanophotocatalyst for enhanced visible light degradation activity. Applied Surface Science, 515, p.145966.
  4. Balkrishna, A., Arya, V., Rohela, A., Kumar, A., Verma, R., Kumar, D., Nepovimova, E., Kuca, K., Thakur, N., Thakur, N. and Kumar, P., 2021a. Nanotechnology Interventions in the Management of COVID-19: Prevention, Diagnosis and Virus-Like Particle Vaccines. Vaccines, 9(10), p.1129.
  5. Balkrishna, A., Kumar, A., Arya, V., Rohela, A., Verma, R., Nepovimova, E., Krejcar, O., Kumar, D., Thakur, N. and Kuca, K., 2021b. Phytoantioxidant Functionalized Nanoparticles: A Green Approach to Combat Nanoparticle-Induced Oxidative Stress. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2021, pp.1-20.
  6. Helmy, E.T., Abouellef, E.M., Soliman, U.A. and Pan, J.H., 2021. Novel green synthesis of S-doped TiO2 nanoparticles using Malva parviflora plant extract and their photocatalytic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities under sunlight illumination. Chemosphere, 271, p.129524.
  7. Johari, N.D., Rosli, Z.M., Juoi, J.M. and Yazid, S.A., 2019. Comparison on the TiO2 crystalline phases deposited via dip and spin coating using green sol-gel route. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 8(2), pp.2350-2358.
  8. Khatana, C., Kumar, A., Alruways, M.W., Khan, N., Thakur, N., Kumar, D., and Kumari, A., 2021. Antibacterial Potential of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized using Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.: A Green Approach to Combat Drug Resistance. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, 15(4), pp.1907-1914.
  9. Krishnan, R., Shibu, S.N., Poelman, D., Badyal, A.K., Kunti, A., Swart, H.C. and Menon, S.G., 2022. Recent advances in microwave synthesis for photoluminescence and photocatalysis. Materials Today Communications, p.103890.
  10. Kubiak, A., Bielan, Z., Kubacka, M., Gabała, E., Zgoła-Grześkowiak, A., Janczarek, M., Zalas, M., Zielińska-Jurek, A., Siwińska-Ciesielczyk, K. and Jesionowski, T., 2020. Microwave-assisted synthesis of a TiO2-CuO heterojunction with enhanced photocatalytic activity against tetracycline. Applied Surface Science, 520, p.146344.
  11. Kumar, A., Ahmad, S., Chandel, T. and Thakur, N., 2021. Prediction of Intrinsic Spin Half-Metallicity and Ferromagnetism of Co-based Full Heusler Alloys: Hunt for Spintronic Applicability. DAE Solid State Physics Symposium, 55, pp.581-582.
  12. Kumar, A., Chandel, T. and Thakur, N., 2022a. Robust stability, half metallic Ferromagnetism and structural properties of Co2RhSi, and Co2RuSi Heusler compounds-A first principles approach. Materials Today: Proceedings, pp.1-6.
  13. Kumar, A., Singh, S., Sofi, S.A., Chandel, T. and Thakur, N., 2022b. Robustness in half-metallicity, thermophysical and structural properties of Co2YAl (Y= Pd, Ag) Heuslers: a first-principles perspective. Molecular Physics, 120(18), p.2120839.
  14. Kumar, A., Sofi, S.A., Chandel, T. and Thakur, N., 2023a. First-principles calculations to investigate structural stability, half-metallic behavior, thermophysical and thermoelectric properties of Co2YAl (Y= Mo, Tc) full Heusler compounds. Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, 1219, p.113943.
  15. Kumar, A., Thakur, N. and Chandel, T., 2020a. Tuning of electronic energy levels of NH3 passivated ZnO nanoclusters: A first principle study. Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, 1176, p.112743.
  16. Kumar, A., Thakur, N. and Chandel, T., 2020b. Tuning of electronic energy levels of NH3 passivated ZnO nanoclusters: A first principle study. Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, 1176, p.112743.
  17. Kumar, P., Thakur, N., Kumar, K. and Jeet, K., 2023b. Photodegradation of methyl orange dye by using Azadirachta indica and chemically mediated synthesized cobalt doped α-Fe2O3 NPs through co-precipitation method. Materials Today: Proceedings.
  18. Li, R., Yang, J., Xu, S., Zhou, Y., Wang, X., Peng, H. and Du, J., 2020. Preparation of Gd-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays by anodization method and its photocatalytic activity for methyl orange degradation. Catalysts, 10(3), p.298.
  19. Mirzaei, A., Eddah, M., Roualdès, S., Ma, D. and Chaker, M., 2021. Multiple-homojunction gradient nitrogen doped TiO2 for photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole, degradation mechanism, and toxicity assessment. Chemical Engineering Journal, 422, p.130507.
  20. Mostakhdemin, M., Nand, A., Arjmandi, M. and Ramezani, M., 2020. Mechanical and microscopical characterisation of bilayer hydrogels strengthened by TiO2 nanoparticles as a cartilage replacement candidate. Materials Today Communications, 25, p.101279.
  21. Nithya, N., Bhoopathi, G., Magesh, G. and Kumar, C.D.N., 2018. Neodymium doped TiO2 nanoparticles by sol-gel method for antibacterial and photocatalytic activity. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 83, pp.70-82.
  22. Parthipan, M., Aravindhan, V. and Rajendran, A., 2011. Medico-botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. Ancient science of life, 30(4), p.104.
  23. Patial, B. and Thakur, N., 2018. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using different plants. CPUH-Research Journal, 3(2), pp.40-43.
  24. Pinedo-Escobar, J.A., Fan, J., Moctezuma, E., Gomez-Solís, C., Carrillo Martinez, C.J. and Gracia-Espino, E., 2021. Nanoparticulate double-heterojunction photocatalysts comprising TiO2 (Anatase)/WO3/TiO2 (Rutile) with enhanced photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of methyl orange under near-ultraviolet and visible light. ACS omega, 6(18), pp.11840-11848.
  25. Saranya, K.S., Vellora Thekkae Padil, V., Senan, C., Pilankatta, R., Saranya, K., George, B., Wacławek, S. and Černík, M., 2018. Green synthesis of high temperature stable anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Gum Kondagogu: characterization and solar driven photocatalytic degradation of organic dye. Nanomaterials, 8(12), p.1002.
  26. Sathiyan, K., Bar-Ziv, R., Mendelson, O. and Zidki, T., 2020. Controllable synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity in dye degradation. Materials Research Bulletin, 126, p.110842.
  27. Sharma, S. and Kumar, K., 2021a. Aloe-vera leaf extract as a green agent for the synthesis of CuO nanoparticles inactivating bacterial pathogens and dye. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 42(13), pp.1950-1962.
  28. Sharma, S., Kumar, K. and Thakur, N., 2021b. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their anti-bacterial activities: use of Aloe barbadensis miller and Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extracts. Nanofabrication, 6(1), pp.52-67.
  29. Sharma, S., Kumar, K., Thakur, N. and Chauhan, M.S., 2020a. Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract as a green mediator for the synthesis of ZnO nanocapsules inactivating bacterial pathogens. Chemical Papers, 74(10), pp.3431-3444.
  30. Sharma, S., Kumar, K., Thakur, N., Chauhan, S. and Chauhan, M.S., 2020b. The effect of shape and size of ZnO nanoparticles on their antimicrobial and photocatalytic activities: a green approach. Bulletin of Materials Science, 43(1), pp.1-10.
  31. Sharma, S., Kumar, K., Thakur, N., Chauhan, S. and Chauhan, M.S., 2021c. Eco-friendly Ocimum tenuiflorum green route synthesis of CuO nanoparticles: Characterizations on photocatalytic and antibacterial activities. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 9(4), p.105395.
  32. Sudha, D. and Sivakumar, P., 2015. Review on the photocatalytic activity of various composite catalysts. Chemically Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 97, pp.112-133.
  33. Suwarnkar, M.B., Dhabbe, R.S., Kadam, A.N. and Garadkar, K.M., 2014. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by a microwave assisted method. Ceramics International, 40(4), pp.5489-5496.
  34. Thakur, N., Anu and Kumar, K., 2020. Effect of (Ag, Co) co-doping on the structural and antibacterial efficiency of CuO nanoparticles: A rapid microwave assisted method. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 8(4), p.104011.
  35. Thakur, N., Kumar, K. and Kumar, A., 2021a. Effect of (Ag, Zn) co-doping on structural, optical and bactericidal properties of CuO nanoparticles synthesized by a microwave-assisted method. Dalton Transactions, 50(18), pp.6188-6203.
  36. Thakur, N., Kumar, K., Thakur, V.K., Soni, S., Kumar, A. and Samant, S.S., 2022a. Antibacterial and photocatalytic activity of undoped and (Ag, Fe) co-doped CuO nanoparticles via microwave-assisted method. Nanofabrication, 7, pp.1-27.
  37. Thakur, N., Thakur, N. and Kumar, K., 2023b. Phytochemically and PVP stabilized TiO2 nanospheres for enhanced photocatalytic and antioxidant efficiency. Materials Today Communications, 35, p.105587.
  38. Thakur, N., Thakur, N., Bhullar, V., Sharma, S., Mahajan, A., Kumar, K., Sharma, D.P. and Pathak, D., 2021b. TiO2 nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning technique and degradation of MO dye under UV light. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie-Crystalline Materials, 236(8-10), pp.239-250.
  39. Thakur, N., Thakur, N., Chauhan, P., Sharma, D.P., Kumar, A. and Jeet, K., 2022b. Futuristic role of nanoparticles for treatment of COVID-19. Biomaterials and Polymers Horizon, 1(2), pp.1-22.
  40. Thakur, N., Thakur, N., Kumar, K. and Kumar, A., 2023a. Tinospora cordifolia mediated eco-friendly synthesis of Cobalt doped TiO2 NPs for degradation of organic methylene blue dye. Materials Today: Proceedings.
  41. Upadhyay, A.K., Kumar, K., Kumar, A. and Mishra, H.S., 2010. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms.(Guduchi)–validation of the Ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies. International journal of Ayurveda research, 1(2), p.112.
  42. Wang, X., Kafizas, A., Li, X., Moniz, S.J., Reardon, P.J., Tang, J., Parkin, I.P. and Durrant, J.R., 2015. Transient absorption spectroscopy of anatase and rutile: the impact of morphology and phase on photocatalytic activity. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 119(19), pp.10439-10447.
  43. Wojnarowicz, J., Chudoba, T., Gierlotka, S. and Lojkowski, W., 2018. Effect of microwave radiation power on the size of aggregates of ZnO NPs prepared using microwave solvothermal synthesis. Nanomaterials, 8(5), p.343.
  44. Zhao, Q.E., Wen, W., Xia, Y. and Wu, J.M., 2018. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanorods, nanowires and nanoflowers filled with TiO2 nanoparticles. Thin Solid Films, 648, pp.103-107.

How to Cite

Thakur, N. ., Thakur, N. ., Kumar, K., Arya, V. ., & Kumar, A. . (2023). Encapsulation of Tinospora cordifolia plant in Ni doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the degradation of malachite green dye. Nanofabrication, 8.


670 4



Article Details


Published: 2023-07-27

Most Read This Month


Copyright (c) 2023 Naveen Thakur, Nikesh Thakur, Kuldeep Kumar, Vedpriya Arya, Ashwani Kumar

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.