Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Studies on high performance rubber composites by incorporating titanium dioxide particles with different surface area and particle size


In this work, we incorporate titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles as fillers into room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (RTV-SR) and fabricated the RTV-SR/TiO2 composites. Herein, the effect of various surface areas of TiO2 particles on the mechanical properties of RTV-SR/TiO2 composites was investigated. The particle size of different types of TiO2 particles (147 nm, 34 nm, and 29 nm) was measured by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), whereas the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area was measured through adsorption-desorption isotherms as 3, 50, and 145 m2/g, respectively. TiO2 particles reinforced RTV-SR composites were prepared by solution mixing method. TiO2 particles with smaller particle sizes and high BET surface area exhibited higher mechanical properties. The compressive moduli were obtained as 2.2 MPa for a virgin sample and increased to 2.6 MPa, 2.8 MPa and 3.24 MPa for 3, 50, and 145 m2/g samples respectively at 6 phr filler loading. Similarly, the fracture strain of the composite was 117% for a virgin sample and changed to 94%, 130%, and 205% for 3, 50, and 145 m2/g samples, respectively, at 8 phr filler loading. The surface area and particle size of the fillers showed significant effect on mechanical properties of the composites, but no significant effect was observed on the energy harvesting values of RTV-SR/TiO2 composites.



  1. Van den Ende DA, Van de Wiel HJ et al. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites, Smart Materials and Structure. 2011; 21(1): 015011.
  2. Taghavi M, Mattoli V, Sadeghi A et al. A Novel Soft Metal‐Polymer Composite for Multidirectional Pressure Energy Harvesting, Advanced Energy Materials, 2014; 4(12):1400024.
  3. Xiao TX, Jiang T, Zhu JX, Liang X, Xu L et al. Silicone-based triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesting, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2018, 10(4):3616–23.
  4. Wang C, Zhao J, Li Q, Li Y et al. Optimization design and experimental investigation of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices for pavement, Applied Energy, 2018, 229:18-30.
  5. Liu D, Song L, Song H, Chen J, Tian Q, Chen L et al. Correlation between mechanical properties and microscopic structures of an optimized silica fraction in silicone rubber, Composite Science and Technology, 2018, 165:373-379.
  6. Bueche AM, Filler reinforcement of silicone rubber, Journal of Polymer Science, 1957, 25(109):139-49.
  7. Zhou W, Qi S, Tu C, Zhao H, Wang C et al. Effect of the particle size of Al2O3 on the properties of filled heat‐conductive silicone rubber, Journal of Polymer Science, 2007, 104(2): 1312-18.
  8. Demjén Z, Pukánszky B, Nagy J et al. Evaluation of interfacial interaction in polypropylene/surface treated CaCO3 composites, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 1998, 29(3): 323-29.
  9. Namitha LK, Chameswary J, Ananthakumar S et al. Effect of micro-and nano-fillers on the properties of silicone rubber-alumina flexible microwave substrate, Ceramics International, 2013, 39(6): 7077-87.
  10. Abbasipour M, Khajavi R, Yousefi AA et al. Improving piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of electrospun PVDF nanofibers using nanofillers for energy harvesting application, Polymer for Advanced Technology, 2019, 30(2):279-91.
  11. Datta J, Kosiorek P, Włoch M, Effect of high loading of titanium dioxide particles on the morphology, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of the natural rubber-based composites, Iranian Polymer Journal, 2016, 25:1021–35.
  12. Ponnamma D, Sadasivuni KK, Strankowski M, Guo Q et al. Synergistic effect of multi walled carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxides in natural rubber for sensing application, Soft Matter, 2013, 9:10343-53.
  13. Kumar V, Kumar A, Han SS, Park SS, RTV silicone rubber composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes, titanium-di-oxide and their hybrid: Mechanical and piezoelectric actuation performance, Nano Materials Science, 2021, 3(3):233-40.
  14. Kumar V, Kumar A, Song M, Lee DJ, Han SS, Park SS, Properties of Silicone Rubber-Based Composites Reinforced with Few-Layer Graphene and Iron Oxide or Titanium Dioxide, Polymers, 2021, 13(10):1550.
  15. Wang YX, Wu YP, Li WJ, Zhang LQ, Influence of filler type on wet skid resistance of SSBR/BR composites: Effects from roughness and micro-hardness of rubber surface, Applied Surface Science, 2011, 257(6):2058-65.
  16. El-Hag AH, Jayaram SH et al. Fundamental and low frequency harmonic components of leakage current as a diagnostic tool to study aging of RTV and HTV silicone rubber in salt-fog, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 2003, 10(1):128-36.
  17. Polmanteer KE, Current perspectives on silicone rubber technology, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 1981, 54(5):1051–80.
  18. Kumar V, Alam MN, Manikkavel A, Song M, Lee DJ et al. Silicone rubber composites reinforced by carbon nanofillers and their hybrids for various applications: A review, Polymers, 2021, 13(14):2322.
  19. Boccalero G, Jean-Mistral C, Castellano M et al. Soft, hyper-elastic and highly-stable silicone-organo-clay dielectric elastomer for energy harvesting and actuation applications, Composites Part B: Engineering, 2018, 146:13-19.
  20. Yang X, Li Z, Jiang Z, Wang S, Liu H, Xu X, Wang D et al. Mechanical reinforcement of room-temperature-vulcanized silicone rubber using modified cellulose nanocrystals as cross-linker and nanofiller, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2020, 229:115509.
  21. Yang X, Jiang Z, Liu H, Zhang H, Xu X, Shang S et al. Performance improvement of rosin-based room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber using nanofiller fumed silica, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2021, 183:109422.
  22. Zhao J, Zhang J, Wang L, Lyu S, Ye W, Xu BB et al. Fabrication and investigation on ternary heterogeneous MWCNT@ TiO2-C fillers and their silicone rubber wave-absorbing composites, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 2020, 129:105714.
  23. Islamipour, Z, Zare, EN, Salimi, F, Ghomi, M, Makvandi, P. Biodegradable antibacterial and antioxidant nanocomposite films based on dextrin for bioactive food packaging, Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry, 2022: 1-16.
  24. Zare, EN, Zheng, X, Makvandi, P, Gheybi, H, Sartorius, R, Yiu, CK et al. Nonspherical Metal-Based Nanoarchitectures: Synthesis and Impact of Size, Shape, and Composition on Their Biological Activity. Small, 2021, 17(17): 2007073.
  25. Kumar V, Kumar A, Alam MN, Park SS, Effect of graphite nanoplatelets surface area on mechanical properties of room-temperature vulcanized silicone rubber nanocomposites, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2022, e52503,
  26. Kumar V, Park SJ, Lee DJ, Park SS, Mechanical and magnetic response of magneto-rheological elastomers with different types of fillers and their hybrids, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2021, 138(37):50957.
  27. Möwes MM, Fleck F, Klüppel M, Effect of filler surface activity and morphology on mechanical and dielectric properties of NBR/Graphene nanocomposites, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 2014, 87(1):70–85.
  28. Alter H, Filler particle size and mechanical properties of polymers, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 1965, 9(4):1525-31.
  29. Hall LM, Anderson BJ, Zukoski CF et al. Concentration fluctuations, local order, and the collective structure of polymer nanocomposites, Macromolecules, 2009, 42(21):8435–42.
  30. Jayaraman A, Schweizer KS, Effective interactions, structure, and phase behavior of lightly tethered nanoparticles in polymer melts, Macromolecules, 2008, 41(23): 9430–8,
  31. Zhou Y, White E, Hosur M, Jeelani S et al. Effect of particle size and weight fraction on the flexural strength and failure mode of TiO2 particles reinforced epoxy, Materials Letters, 2010, 64(7):806-9.
  32. Che J, Wu K, Lin Y, Wang K, Fu Q, Largely improved thermal conductivity of HDPE/expanded graphite/carbon nanotubes ternary composites via filler network-network synergy, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 2017, 99:32-40.
  33. Zhou H, Deng H, Zhang L, Fu Q, Significant enhancement of thermal conductivity in polymer composite via constructing macroscopic segregated filler networks, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2017, 9(34): 29071–81.
  34. Peddigari M, Kim GY, Park CH, Min Y, Kim JW, Ahn CW et al. A comparison study of fatigue behavior of hard and soft piezoelectric single crystal macro-fiber composites for vibration energy harvesting, Sensors, 2019, 19(9):2196.
  35. Gao D, Liu C, Fan S, A new type of flexible energy harvesting device working with micro water droplets achieving high output, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2021, 9:23555-62.
  36. Kornbluh RD, Pelrine R, Prahlad H, Wong-Foy A et al. Dielectric elastomers: Stretching the capabilities of energy harvesting, MRS Bulletin, 2012, 37(3):246-53.

How to Cite

Kumar, V. ., Kumar, A. ., Chhatra, R. K. ., & Le, D.-J. . (2022). Studies on high performance rubber composites by incorporating titanium dioxide particles with different surface area and particle size. Nanofabrication, 7, 104–115.





Article Details

Most Read This Month


Copyright (c) 2022 Vineet Kumar, Anuj Kumar, Rajesh K. Chhatra, Dong-Joo Le

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.