Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Nano-remediation for the decolourisation of textile effluents: A review


The economic development of any nation leads to the depletion of its natural resources, and water is one of them. Water pollution caused by various industries like food, leather, and textile etc. causes severe impacts on the environment and humans. To ensure water availability to the whole world, contaminated water released from industries, mainly fabric, must be treated and reused. The conventional techniques alone are not enough to treat textile effluent completely. This is why nanotechnology should be combined with these traditional techniques. Nanotechnology includes engineered nanoparticles for the alteration and detoxification of contaminants. Compared to nanoparticles produced from conventional techniques, biogenic nanoparticles are environmentally friendly and cost-efficient. Microbes such as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Hypocrealixii, Bacillus species, Pseudomonas aeuginosa etc., are used to fabricate nanoparticles. Among various microbes, bacteria are considered a bio-factory for the fabrication of nanoparticles. Different researchers reported an average dye removal efficiency of biogenic nanoparticles between 87% and 92%. When nanoparticles are applied to actual textile waste water rather than synthetic dye, waste water gives good results through the adsorption process. In this review, various methods for dye degradation are explained, but the focus is on the biological treatment of textile waste water in combination with nanotechnology.



  1. Ahlawat W, et al. Carbonaceous nano-materials as effective and efficient platforms for removal of dyes from aqueous systems. Environ. Res. 2020;181, 108904.
  2. Ahmad A, et al. Recent advances in new generation dye removal technologies: novel search for approaches to reprocess wastewater. RSC Adv. 2015;5(39), 30801–30818. .
  3. Aksu Z, and Donmez G. Combined effects of molasses sucrose and reactive dye on the growth and dye bioaccumulation properties of Candida tropicalis. Process Biochem. 2005;40(7), 2443–2454. .
  4. Ali I, et al. Overview of microbes based fabricated biogenic nanoparticles for water and wastewater treatment. J. Environ. Manage. 2019;230, 128–150. .
  5. Allam NG, et al. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by cell-free extracts from some bacteria species for dye removal from wastewater. Biotechnol. Lett. 2019;41(3), 379-389.
  6. Anjum M, et al. Remediation of wastewater using various nano-materials.Arab. J. Chem. 2016;12, 4897-4919. .
  7. Arasu MV, et al. One step green synthesis of larvicidal, and azo dye degrading antibacterial nanoparticles by response surface methodology. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol. 2019;190, 154–162. .
  8. Asfour HM, et al. Equilibrium studies on adsorption of basic dyes on hardwood. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 1985;35A, 21–27. .
  9. Bachheti RK, et al. Biogenic fabrication of nano-materials from flower-based chemical compounds, characterisation and their various applications: A review. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 2020;27(10), 2551-2562. .
  10. Baştürk E, and Alver A. Modeling azo dye removal by sono-fenton processes using response surface methodology and artificial neural network approaches. J. Environ. Manage. 2019;248, 109300. .
  11. Batool S, et al. Study of modern nano enhanced techniques for removal of dyes and metals. J. Nanomater. 2014;1-20, Article ID: 864914. .
  12. Bhattacharya D, and Gupta RK. Nanotechnology and potential of microorganisms. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 2005;25, 199–204. .
  13. Bilal M, et al. Biosorption: an interplay between marine algae and potentially toxic elements—a review. Mar. Drugs. 2018;16(2), 65. .
  14. Brüschweiler BJ, and Merlot, C. Azo dyes in clothing textiles can be cleaved into a series of mutagenic aromatic amines which are not regulated yet. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2017;88, 214–226. .
  15. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) (2012). New Delhi. Available at: (Accessed in July 2020).
  16. Chauhan AK, et al. Green fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles using Eucalyptus spp. leaves extract and their application in wastewater remediation. Chemosphere. 2020;247, 125803. .
  17. Chen W, et al. Biomimetic dynamic membrane for aquatic dye removal. Water Res. 2019;151, 243–251. .
  18. Chequer FMD, et al. Azo dyes and their metabolites: does the discharge of the azo dye into water bodies represent human and ecological risks. In Hauser P (ed.) Advances in treating textile effluents. InTech, Janeza Trdine, Rijeka, Croatia;2011;pp. 28–48.
  19. Choi YS, and Cho JH. Colour removal from dye wastewater using vermiculite. Environ. Technol. 1996;17 (11), 1169–1180. .
  20. Chong MY, and Tam YJ. Bioremediation of dyes using coconut parts via adsorption: a review. SN Appl. Sci. 2020;2, 187. .
  21. Collivignarelli MC, et al. Treatments for color removal from wastewater: state of the art. J. Environ. Manage. 2019;236. 727–745. .
  22. Da-Guang Y. Formation of colloidal silver nanoparticles sstabilised by Na+poly (-glutamic acid) silver nitrate complex via chemical reduction process. Colloids Surf. 2007;59, 171–178. .
  23. Dasgupta J, et al. Remediation of textile effluents by membrane based treatment techniques: a state of the art review. J. Environ. Manage. 2015;147, 55–72. .
  24. Deplanche K, et al. Catalytic activity of biomass-supported Pd nanoparticles: influence of the biological component in catalytic efficacy and potential application in ‘green’ synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Appl. Catal. B. 2014;147, 651–665. .
  25. Dhandapani P, et al. Ureolytic bacteria mediated synthesis of hairy ZnO nanostructure as photocatalyst for decolorisation of dyes. Mater. Chem. Phys. 2020;243, 122619. .
  26. Dos Santos AB, et al. Review paper on current technologies for decolourisation of textile wastewaters: perspectives for anaerobic biotechnology. Bioresour. Technol. 2007;98, 2369–2385. .
  27. Down to Earth (2005). United Colours of Industry. Available at: March 3 2022
  28. El Hassani K, et al. Enhanced degradation of an azo dye by catalytic ozonation over Ni-containing layered double hydroxide nanocatalyst. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2019;210, 764–774. .
  29. Fang X, et al. Microorganism assisted ssynthesised nanoparticles for catalytic applications. Energies. 2019;12, 190.
  30. Fawcett D, et al. A review of current research into the biogenic synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles via marine algae and seagrasses. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2017;1–15, Article ID: 8013850.
  31. Fenta MM. Heavy metals concentration in wastewaters of textile industry, TikurWuha river and milk of cows watering on this water resource, Hawassa, Southern Ethopia. Res. J. Environ. Sci. 2014;8(8), 422–434.
  32. Forgacs E, et al. Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: a review. Environ. Int. 2004;30, 953–971. .
  33. Förster H, Wolfrum C, Peukert W. Experimental study of metal nanoparticle synthesis by an arc evaporation/condensation process. J. Nanoparticle Res. 2012;14(7), 1-16.
  34. Franca RDG, et al. Recent developments in textile wastewater biotreatment: dye metabolite fate, aerobic granular sludge systems and engineered nanoparticles. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 2020;1–42. .
  35. Ganjidoust H, et al. Removal of dyes by sorption on soil from textile industries. In Prep. 3rd Int. Conference Appropriate Waste Management Technologies for Developing Countries. 1995;523–530.
  36. García-Barrasa J, et al. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis through chemical methods in solution and biomedical applications. Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 2010;9(1), 7–19. .
  37. Garg VK, et al. Dye removal from aqueous solution by adsorption on treated sawdust. Bioresour. Technol. 2003;89, 121–124. .
  38. Gautam PK, et al. Synthesis and applications of biogenic nano-materials in drinking and wastewater treatment. J. Environ. Manage. 2019;231, 734–748. .
  39. Geetha KS, and Belagali SL. Removal of heavy metals and dyes using low cost adsorbents from aqueous medium- A review. J. Environ. Sci. Toxicol. Food Technol. 2013;4(3), 56–68.
  40. Ghalebizade M, and Ayati B. Solar photoelectrocatalytic degradation of Acid Orange 7 with ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite coated on stainless steel electrode. Process Saf Environ Prot. 2016;103, 192–202. .
  41. Gulnaz O, et al. Decolorisation of the textile dyes reactive blue 220, acid red 414 and basic yellow 28 by ozone and biodegradation of oxidation products. Fresenius Environ. Bull. 2012;21(4), 808–813.
  42. Gupta A, et al. Bioaccumulation of Lead Using Bacillus sp. Ann. Bio. 2015;31, 51-57.
  43. Gupta GS, et al. China clay as an adsorbent for dye house wastewater. J. Environ. Technol. 1992;13(10), 925–936. .
  44. Gupta UK. Weaving the way for Indian textile industry. NITI Aayog, Govt. of India. 2020;
  45. Ha C, et al. Bio recovery of palladium as nanoparticles by Enterococcus faecalis and its catalysis for chromate reduction. Chem. Eng. J. 2016;288, 246–254. .
  46. Hadjltaief HB, et al. TiO2/clay as a heterogeneous catalyst in photocatalytic/photochemical oxidation of anionic reactive blue 19. Arab. J. Chem. 2019;12(7), 1454–1462. .
  47. Hakim LF, et al. Aggregation behavior of nanoparticles in fluidised beds. Powder Technol. 2005;160 (3), 149–160. .
  48. Holkar CR, et al. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: possible approaches. J. Environ. Manage. 2016;182, 351–366. .
  49. Husseiney MI, et al. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. 2007;67(3–4), 1003–1006.
  50. Ingale AG, and Chaudhari AN. Biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles and potential applications: an eco-friendly approach. J. Nanomed. Nanotechnol. 2013;4(165), 1–7. .
  51. Jaafarzadeh N, et al. The performance study on ultrasonic/Fe3O4/H2O2 for degradation of azo dye and real textile wastewater treatment. J. Mol. Liq. 2018;256, 462–470.
  52. Jorfi S, et al. Enhanced coagulation-photocatalytic treatment of Acid red 73 dye and real textile wastewater using UVA/synthesised MgO nanoparticles. J. Environ. Manage. 2016;177, 111–118. .
  53. Kataria N, and Garg VK. Application of EDTA modified Fe3O4/sawdust carbon nanocomposites to ameliorate methylene blue and brilliant green dye laden water. Environ. Res. 2019;172, 43–54.
  54. Katheresan V, et al. Efficiency of various recent wastewater dye removal methods: a review. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2018;6(4), 4676–4697. .
  55. Kebede F, and Gashaw A. Removal of Chromium and Azo Metal-Complex dyes using activated carbon ssynthesised from tannery wastes. J. Sci. Technol. 2017;5, 1-30, Article ID: 101214. .
  56. Klaus T, et al. Silver-based crystalline nanoparticles, microbially fabricated. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 1999;96(24), 13611–13614. .
  57. Kumar SP, et al. Nanochemicals and Wastewater Treatment in Textile Industries. Textiles science and technology and clothing science and technology, Springer Singapore; 2017; pp. 57–96.
  58. Kurade MB, et al. Decolorisation of textile industry effluent using immobilised consortium cells in upflow fixed bed reactor. J. Clean. Prod. 2019;213, 884–891. .
  59. Li Y, et al. Polymeric micelle assembly for the smart synthesis of mesoporous platinum nanospheres with tunable pore sizes. Angewandte Chemie International Edition; 2015;54(38), 11290–11290. .
  60. Linhares B, et al. Activated carbon prepared from yerba mate used as a novel adsorbent for removal of tannery dye from aqueous solution. Environ. Technol. 2013;34(16), 2401–2406.
  61. Liu J, et al. Characterisation and utilisation of industrial microbial waste as novel adsorbent to remove single and mixed dyes from water. J. Clean. Prod. 2019;208, 552–562. .
  62. Long X, et al. Microbial fuel cell-photoelectrocatalytic cell combined system for the removal of azo dye wastewater. Bioresour. Technol. 2017;244(1), 182–191. .
  63. Lu Y, et al. Microbial mediated iron redox cycling in Fe (hydr) oxides for nitrite removal. Bioresour. Technol. 2017;224, 34–40. .
  64. Mall ID, and Upadhyay SN. Studies on treatment of basic dyes bearing wastewater by adsorptive treatment using flyash. Indian J. Environ. Health. 1998;40(2), 177–188.
  65. Manivasagan P, et al. Marine microorganisms as potential biofactories for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 2016;42(6), 1007–1019. .
  66. Martins M, et al. Biogenic platinum and palladium nanoparticles as new catalysts for the removal of pharmaceutical compounds. Water Res. 2017;108, 160–168. .
  67. Mashkoor F, et al. Exploring the reusability of synthetically contaminated wastewater containing crystal violet dye using Tectona grandis sawdust as a very low-cost adsorbent. Sci. Rep. 2018;8, 8314. .
  68. Mazet M, et al. Dyes removal from textile effluents by wood sawdust. European J. Sci. Res. 1990;3 (2), 129–149.
  69. Mckay G. Application of surface diffusion model to adsorption of dyes on bagasse pith. Adsorption. 1998;4, 361–372. .
  70. Ministry of Textiles Government of India, Annual Report 2018–19 . Accessed July 07 2020
  71. Mishra S, et al. Potential of biosynthesised silver nanoparticles using Stenotrophomonas sp. BHU-S7 (MTCC 5978) for management of soil-borne and foliar phytopathogens. Sci. Rep. 2017;7, Article ID: 45154, .
  72. Modi S, et al. Microbial ssynthesised silver nanoparticles for sdecolorisation and biodegradation of azo dye compound. J. Environ. Nanotechnol. 2015;4(2): 37–46. 10.13074/jent.2015.06.152149
  73. Mody VV, et al. Introduction to metallic nanoparticles. J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci. 2010;2 (4), 282–289. .
  74. Momin B, et al. sValorisation of mutant Bacillus licheniformis M09 supernatant for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: photocatalytic dye degradation, antibacterial activity, and cytotoxicity. Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng. 2019;42(4), 541–553.
  75. Mondal P, et al. Study of environmental issues in textile industries and recent wastewater treatment technology. World Sci. News. 2017;61(2), 98–109.
  76. Mukherjee P, et al. Fungus-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their immobilisation in the mycelial matrix: a novel biological approach to nanoparticle synthesis. Nano Lett. 2001;1 (10), 515–519. .
  77. Mystrioti C, et al. Comparative evaluation of five plant extracts and juices for nanoiron synthesis and application for hexavalent chromium reduction. Sci. Total Environ. 2016;539, 105–113. .
  78. Naim MM, et al. Application of silver-, iron-, and chitosan-nanoparticles in wastewater treatment. Int. Conf. Eur. Desalin. Soc. Desalin. Environ. Clean Water Energy, 2016;73, 268–280. .
  79. Namasivayam C, and Kadirvelu K. Coir pith, an agricultural waste by-product, for the treatment of dyeing wastewater. Bioresour. Technol. 1994;48(1), 79–81. .
  80. Namasivayam C, et al. Removal of direct red and acid brilliant blue by adsorption on to banana pith. Bioresour. Technol. 1998; 64(1), 77–79. .
  81. Nandhini NT, et al. The possible mechanism of eco-friendly synthesised nanoparticles on hazardous dyes degradation. Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol. 2019;19, Article ID: 101138. .
  82. Narayanan KB, and Sakthivel N. Biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles by microbes. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2010;156(1-2), 1-13. .
  83. Nassar NN, et al. Adsorptive removal of dyes from synthetic and real textile wastewater using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: thermodynamic and mechanistic insights. Can J Chem Eng. 2015;93(11), 1965–1974. .
  84. Nazari N, and Kashi FJ. A novel microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Its bioactivity, Ag/Ca-Alg beads as an effective catalyst for decolorisation Disperse Blue 183 from textile industry effluent. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2021;259, 118117. .
  85. Noman M, et al. Use of biogenic copper nanoparticles synthesised from a native Escherichia sp. as photocatalysts for azo dye degradation and treatment of textile effluents. Environ. Pollut. 2020;257, Article ID: 113514. .
  86. Olabisi OE, et al. Assessment of bacteria pollution of shallow well water in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria. Life Sci. 2008;5(1), 59–65.
  87. Panpatte DG, et al. Nanoparticles: the next generation technology for sustainable agriculture. In Singh, D., Singh, H., Prabha, R (eds). Microbial inoculants in sustainable agricultural productivity. Springer, New Delhi; 2016;pp. 289–300. .
  88. Pantidos N, and Horsfall LE. Biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles by bacteria, fungi and plants. J. Nanomed. Nanotechnol. 2014;5(5), 233. .
  89. Park TJ, et al. Advances in microbial biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2016;100(2), 521–534. .
  90. Parthibavarman M, et al. Green synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles using extract of apple and grape and with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. BioNanoScience. 2019;9(2), 423–432. .
  91. Patil SS, et al. Nanoparticles for environmental clean-up: A review of potential risks and emerging solutions. Environ. Technol. Innov.2016;5, 10–21. .
  92. Paul SC, et al. Silver nanoparticles synthesis in a green approach: size dependent catalytic degradation of cationic and anionic dyes. Orient. J. Chem. 2020;36(3), 353–360. .
  93. Paull R, et al. Investing in nanotechnology. Nat. Biotechnol. 2003;21(10), 1144– 1147. .
  94. Periyasamy AP, et al. Sustainable wastewater treatment methods for textile industry. In Muthu, S. (ed.) Sustainable Innovations in Apparel Production. Springer, Singapore; 2018;pp. 21–87. .
  95. Poots VJP, et al. The removal of acid dye from effluent using natural adsorbents: peat. Water Res. 1978;10(12), 1061–1066. .
  96. Priyadarshini S, et al. Synthesis of anisotropic silver nanoparticles using novel strain, Bacillus flexus and its biomedical application. Colloids Surf. B. 2013;102, 232–237.
  97. Qu Y, et al. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Aspergillumsp. WL-Au for degradation of aromatic pollutants. Physica E Low Dimens. Syst. Nanostruct. 2017;88, 133–141.
  98. Rafique M, et al. A review on green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their applications. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2017;45(7), 1272–1291. .
  99. Rahimi S, et al. Comparing the photocatalytic process efficiency using batch and tubular reactors in removal of methylene blue dye and COD from simulated textile wastewater. J. Water Reuse Desalin. 2016;6(4), 574–582. .
  100. Rahman FBA, and Akter M. Removal of dyes form textile wastewater by adsorption using Shrimp Shell. Int. J. Waste Resour. 2016;6(3):1–5.
  101. Rajan S. Nanotechnology in ground water remediation. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev. 2011;2(3), 182–187.
  102. Raman CD, and Kanmani S. Textile dye degradation using nano zero valent iron: a review. J. Environ. Manage. 2016;177, 341–355. .
  103. Ramos-Ruiz A, et al. Continuous reduction of tellurite to recover able tellurium nanoparticles using an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. Water Res. 2017;108, 189–196. .
  104. Rangabhashiyam S, et al. Sequestration of dye from textile industry wastewater using agricultural waste products as adsorbents. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2013;1(4), 629–641. .
  105. Rawat D, et al. Detoxification of azo dyes in the context of environmental processes. Chemosphere. 2016;155, 591–605. .
  106. Regan H. Asian rivers are turning black. And our colorful closets are to blame. CNN Style. 2020. Available at: (Accessed on 30 September 2022).
  107. Reverberi AP, et al. Systematical analysis of chemical methods in metal nanoparticles synthesis. Theor. Found. Chem. Eng. 2016;50, 59–66. .
  108. Robinson T, et al. Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresour. Technol. 2001;77(3), 247–255. .
  109. Saini RD. Textile organic dyes: polluting effects and elimination methods from textile waste water. Int. J. Chem. Eng. 2017;9, 121–136.
  110. Salata OV. Applications of nanoparticles in biology and medicine. J. Nanobiotechnology. 2004;2, 1–6, Article ID: 3. .
  111. Salter-Blanc AJ, et al. Structure–activity relationships for rates of aromatic amine oxidation by manganese dioxide. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2016;50(10), 5094–5102. .
  112. Salunke BK, et al. Microorganisms as efficient biosystem for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles: current scenario and future possibilities. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2016;32(5), 88. .
  113. Salvadori MR, et al. Extra and intracellular synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles mediated by dead fungal biomass. PLOS One. 2015;10(6), e0129799. .
  114. Salvadori MR, et al. Intracellular biosynthesis and removal of copper nanoparticles by dead biomass of yeast isolated from the wastewater of a mine in the Brazilian Amazonia. PLOS One. 2014;9(1), e87968.
  115. Samuel MS, et al. Biosynthesised silver nanoparticles using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Application for cytotoxicity effect on A549 cell line and photocatalytic degradation of p-nitrophenol. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol. 2020;202, 111642. .
  116. Saruchi, and Kumar V. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms for the removal of rhodamine B dye and Pb+2 ions from aqueous solutions by a hybrid ion-exchanger. Arab. J. Chem. 2019;12(3), 316–329. .
  117. Savin, and Butnaru R. Wastewater characteristics in textile finishing mills. Environ. Eng. Manag. J. 2008;7(6), 859–864.
  118. Shabbir S, et al. Evaluating role of simmobilised periphyton in bioremediation of azo dye amaranth. Bioresour. Technol. 2017;225, 395–401. .
  119. Shah M, et al. Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles via biological entities. Materials. 2015;8(11), 7278–7308. .
  120. Shen W, et al. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a newly isolated strain Trichosporon montevideense for catalytic hydrogenation of nitro aromatics. Biotechnol. Lett. 2016;38(9), 1503–1508. .
  121. Siddiqi KS, and Husen A. Current status of plant metabolite-based fabrication of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles and their applications: a review. Biomater. Res. 2020;24(1), 1–15, Article ID: 11. .
  122. Siddique K, et al. Textile wastewater treatment options: a critical review. In Enhancing Cleanup of Environmental Pollutants. Springer, Cham. 2017;183–207. .
  123. Song D, et al. Aerobic biogenesis of selenium nanoparticles by Enterobacter cloacae Z0206 as a consequence of fumarate reductase mediated selenite reduction. Sci. Rep. 2017;7, Article ID: 3239. .
  124. Sponza TD. Necessity of toxicity assessment in Turkish industrial discharges (examples from metal and textile industry effluents). Environ. Monit. Assess. 2002;73(1), 41–66. .
  125. Suteu D, et al. Biosorbents Based on Lignin Used in Biosorption Processes from Wastewater Treatment (chapter 7). In: Lignin: Properties and Applications in Biotechnology and Bioenergy, Ryan J. Paterson (Ed.), Nova Science Publishers, New York, U.S.A; 2011;pp. 279–306.
  126. Tetteh EK, and Rathilal S. Application of magnetised nano-material for textile effluent remediation using response surface methodology. Mater. Today: Proc. 2020;38, 700-711. .
  127. Thakkar KN, et al. Biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Nanomedicine. 2010;6(2), 257–262. .
  128. Tkaczyk A, et al. Synthetic organic dyes as contaminants of the aquatic environment and their implications for ecosystems: A review. Sci. Total Environ. 2020;717, 137222. .
  129. Tony MA, and Mansour SA. Removal of the commercial reactive dye Procion Blue MX-7RX from real textile wastewater using the synthesised Fe2O3 nanoparticles at different particle sizes as a source of Fenton's reagent. Nanoscale Adv. 2019;1(4), 1362–1371. .
  130. Topac FO, et al. Effect of a sulfonated azo dye and sulfanilic acid on nitrogen transformation processes in soil. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009;170 (2–3), 1006–1013. .
  131. Tripp SL, et al. Self-assembly of cobalt nanoparticle rings. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002;124 (27), 7914–7915. .
  132. Usman MS, et al. Copper nanoparticles mediated by chitosan: synthesis and characterisation via chemical methods. Molecules. 2012;17(12), 14928–14936. .
  133. Venil CK, et al. Synthesis of flexirubin-mediated silver nanoparticles using Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497 and investigation of its anticancer activity. Mater. Sci. Eng. C. 2016;59, 228–234. .
  134. Ververi M, and Goula AM. Pomegranate peel and orange juice by-product as new biosorbents of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewaters. Chem Eng Process. 2019;138, 86–96. .
  135. Vijayaraghavan K, and Yun YS. Biosorption of C.I. Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution using acid-treated biomass of brown seaweed Laminaria sp. Dyes Pigm. 2008;76(3), 726–732. .
  136. Vikrant K, and Kim KH. Nano-materials for the adsorptive treatment of Hg(II) ions from water. Chem. Eng. J. 2019;358, 264–282.
  137. Vikrant K, et al. Recent advancements in bioremediation of dye: Current status and challenges. Bioresour. Technol. 2018;253, 355–367. .
  138. Wang FY, et al. Adsorption of cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solution by a new low-cost adsorbent-Bamboo charcoal. J. Hazard. Mater. 2010;177(1–3), 300–306. .
  139. Wang HC, et al. Increasing the bio-electrochemical system performance in azo dye wastewater treatment: Reduced electrode spacing for improved hydrodynamics. Bioresour. Technol. 2017;245, 962–969. .
  140. Wang J, et al. Polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyacrylamide intercalated molybdenum disulfide as adsorbents for enhanced removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions. Chem. Eng. J. 2018;334, 569–578. .
  141. Wang Z, et al. Textile dyeing wastewater treatment. In Hauser P (ed.) Advances in treating textile effluents. InTech, JanezaTrdine, Rijeka, Croatia.2011;pp. 91–115.
  142. Welham A. The theory of dyeing (and the secret of life). J. Soc. Dye. Colour. 2000;116, 140–143.
  143. Xiang X, et al. Anaerobic digestion of recalcitrant textile dyeing sludge with alternative pretreatment strategies. Bioresour. Technol. 2016;22, 252–260. .
  144. Younis AM, et al. Efficient removal of La (III) and Nd (III) from aqueous solutions using carbon nanoparticles. Am. J. Anal. Chem. 2014;5(17), 1273–1284, Article ID: 52611. .
  145. Yue L, et al. Controllable biosynthesis of high-purity lead-sulfide (PbS) nanocrystals by regulating the concentration of polyethylene glycol in microbial system. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2016;39(12), 1839–1846. .
  146. Zhang G, et al. Bio-inspired underwater superoleophobic PVDF membranes for highly-efficient simultaneous removal of insoluble emulsified oils and soluble anionic dyes. Chem. Eng. J. 2019;369, 576–587. .
  147. Zhang H, and Hu X. Biosynthesis of Pd and Au as nanoparticles by a marine bacterium Bacillus sp. GP and their enhanced catalytic performance using metal oxides for 4-nitro phenol reduction. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 2018;113, 59–66. .

How to Cite

Yadav, S. ., Punia, S. ., Sharma, H. R. ., & Gupta, A. . (2022). Nano-remediation for the decolourisation of textile effluents: A review . Nanofabrication, 7, 217–243.


240 9



Article Details

Most Read This Month


Copyright (c) 2022 Sangita Yadav, Sunita Punia, Hardeep Rai Sharma, Asha Gupta

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.