Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Nanoarchitectonics: role of nanomaterials in vaccination strategies for curbing SARs-CoV-2/COVID-19


With the exponential rise in infections by CoV-2 and the scarcity of antiviral therapeutics, the development of an effective vaccine for the SARS CoV-2 is critical. The emerging pandemic has prompted the international science community to seek answers in therapeutic agents, including vaccines, to battle the SARS CoV-2. The various scientific literature on SARS CoV, to a lesser degree, MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), has mentored vaccine techniques for the unique Coronavirus. This disease, COVID-19, is triggered by SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 that needs vaccine protection. Vaccines producing significant amounts of virus-neutralizing antibodies with high affinity may be the only way to combat infection while avoiding negative consequences. There is a summary of numerous vaccine contenders in the review, including nucleotide, vector-based vaccines, & subunit, and attenuated & killed types. That has previously shown preventive effects against the MERS-CoV & SARS-CoV, while suggesting that these candidates may yield a safe and efficient vaccine for SARS-CoV-2. Vector-based vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, genetic vaccines, and protein subunit types for passive immunization are among the vaccination platforms currently being evaluated for the CoV-2 virus; each has its own set of benefits and drawbacks. The clinical safety and effectiveness evidence is the main challenging research task for this possible vaccine developed in the lab. The most challenging aspect of production is constructing and validating distribution platforms worthy of mass-producing the vaccine on a larger scale. Since target vaccine groups include high-risk people above the age of 60, including severe co-morbid diseases, the healthcare staff, and those engaged in vital industries, an effective COVID-19 vaccine would need a careful confirmation of effectiveness and detrimental reactivity. The study summarises efforts devoted to developing an efficient vaccine for the new Coronavirus that devastated the global economy, people's health, and even their lives.



  1. Weston, S. and M. Frieman, COVID-19: knowns, unknowns, and questions. mSphere 5: e00203-20. 2020.
  2. Hiscott, J., et al., The global impact of the coronavirus pandemic. Cytokine & growth factor reviews, 2020. 53: p. 1-9.
  3. Strizova, Z., et al., Principles and Challenges in anti-COVID-19 Vaccine Development. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 2021: p. 1-11.
  4. Gorbalenya, A.E., et al., Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: The species and its viruses–a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group. 2020.
  5. Munjal, A., et al., Advances in developing therapies to combat Zika virus: current knowledge and future perspectives. Frontiers in microbiology, 2017. 8: p. 1469.
  6. Dhama, K., et al., Advances in designing and developing vaccines, drugs, and therapies to counter Ebola virus. Frontiers in immunology, 2018. 9: p. 1803.
  7. Sheahan, T.P., et al., Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-CoV. Nature communications, 2020. 11(1): p. 1-14.
  8. Calina, D., et al., Towards effective COVID‑19 vaccines: Updates, perspectives and challenges. International journal of molecular medicine, 2020. 46(1): p. 3-16.
  9. Lauer, S.A., et al., The incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from publicly reported confirmed cases: estimation and application. Annals of internal medicine, 2020. 172(9): p. 577-582.
  10. Control, C.f.D. and Prevention, Coronavirus Disease 2019: COVID-19. 2020.
  11. Xu, Z., et al., Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Lancet respiratory medicine, 2020. 8(4): p. 420-422.
  12. Caër, C. and M.J. Wick, Human intestinal mononuclear phagocytes in health and inflammatory bowel disease. Frontiers in Immunology, 2020. 11: p. 410.
  13. Shang, W., et al., The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia calls for viral vaccines. npj Vaccines, 2020. 5(1): p. 1-3.
  14. Delamater, P.L., et al., Complexity of the basic reproduction number (R0). Emerging infectious diseases, 2019. 25(1): p. 1.
  15. Park, S.E., Epidemiology, virology, and clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus Disease-19). Clinical and experimental pediatrics, 2020. 63(4): p. 119.
  16. Kaur, S.P. and V. Gupta, COVID-19 Vaccine: A comprehensive status report. Virus research, 2020: p. 198114.
  17. Cheng, V.C., et al., Escalating infection control response to the rapidly evolving epidemiology of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 2020. 41(5): p. 493-498.
  18. Weissleder, R., et al., COVID-19 diagnostics in context. Science translational medicine, 2020. 12(546).
  19. Tan, W., et al., Viral kinetics and antibody responses in patients with COVID-19. MedRxiv, 2020.
  20. Jiang, C., et al., Molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 being challenged by virus variation and asymptomatic infection. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 2021. 11(3): p. 257-264.
  21. Thevarajan, I., et al., Breadth of concomitant immune responses prior to patient recovery: a case report of non-severe COVID-19. Nature medicine, 2020. 26(4): p. 453-455.
  22. Speiser, D.E. and M.F. Bachmann, COVID-19: Mechanisms of vaccination and immunity. Vaccines, 2020. 8(3): p. 404.
  23. Yang, P. and X. Wang, COVID-19: a new challenge for human beings. Cellular & molecular immunology, 2020. 17(5): p. 555-557.
  24. Hoffmann, M., et al., SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. cell, 2020. 181(2): p. 271-280. e8.
  25. Wang, Q., et al., Structural and functional basis of SARS-CoV-2 entry by using human ACE2. Cell, 2020. 181(4): p. 894-904. e9.
  26. Li, Y., et al., Physiological and pathological regulation of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. Pharmacological research, 2020: p. 104833.
  27. Lukassen, S., et al., SARS‐CoV‐2 receptor ACE 2 and TMPRSS 2 are primarily expressed in bronchial transient secretory cells. The EMBO journal, 2020. 39(10): p. e105114.
  28. Jiang, S., C. Hillyer, and L. Du, Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronaviruses. Trends in immunology, 2020. 41(5): p. 355-359.
  29. Jiang, S., et al., Neutralizing antibodies for the treatment of COVID-19. Nature biomedical engineering, 2020. 4(12): p. 1134-1139.
  30. Dhama, K., et al., COVID-19, an emerging coronavirus infection: advances and prospects in designing and developing vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and therapeutics. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 2020. 16(6): p. 1232-1238.
  31. Wang, N., J. Shang, and S. Jiang, Lanying Du. Subunit vaccines against emerging pathogenic human coronaviruses. Front Microbiol, 2020. 11: p. 298.
  32. Mahrosh, H.S. and G. Mustafa, The COVID-19 puzzle: a global nightmare. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 2021: p. 1-28.
  33. Pandey, S.C., et al., Vaccination strategies to combat novel corona virus SARS-CoV-2. Life sciences, 2020: p. 117956.
  34. Mohan, T., P. Verma, and D.N. Rao, Novel adjuvants & delivery vehicles for vaccines development: a road ahead. The Indian journal of medical research, 2013. 138(5): p. 779.
  35. Coleman, C.M., et al., Purified coronavirus spike protein nanoparticles induce coronavirus neutralizing antibodies in mice. Vaccine, 2014. 32(26): p. 3169-3174.
  36. Tu, Y.-F., et al., A review of SARS-CoV-2 and the ongoing clinical trials. International journal of molecular sciences, 2020. 21(7): p. 2657.
  37. Lee, J., These 23 companies are working on coronavirus treatments or vaccines—here’s where things stand. Market watch, 2020.
  38. Kim, E., et al., Microneedle array delivered recombinant coronavirus vaccines: Immunogenicity and rapid translational development. EBioMedicine, 2020. 55: p. 102743.
  39. Hobernik, D. and M. Bros, DNA vaccines—how far from clinical use? International journal of molecular sciences, 2018. 19(11): p. 3605.
  40. Pandey, S.C., et al., Vaccination strategies to combat novel corona virus SARS-CoV-2. Life sciences, 2020. 256: p. 117956.
  41. Ferraro, B., et al., Clinical applications of DNA vaccines: current progress. Clinical infectious diseases, 2011. 53(3): p. 296-302.
  42. Silveira, M.M., G.M.S.G. Moreira, and M. Mendonça, DNA vaccines against COVID-19: Perspectives and challenges. Life sciences, 2021. 267: p. 118919.
  43. Safety, T., Immunogenicity of INO-4800 for COVID-19 in Healthy Volunteers. ClinicalTrials. gov, 2020.
  44. Smith, T.R., et al., Immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine candidate for COVID-19. Nature communications, 2020. 11(1): p. 1-13.
  45. Le, T.T., et al., The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape. Nat Rev Drug Discov, 2020. 19(5): p. 305-306.
  46. Zhang, C., et al., Advances in mRNA vaccines for infectious diseases. Frontiers in Immunology, 2019. 10: p. 594.
  47. Mulligan, M.J., et al., Phase 1/2 study to describe the safety and immunogenicity of a COVID-19 RNA vaccine candidate (BNT162b1) in adults 18 to 55 years of age: interim report. MedRxiv, 2020.
  48. Vogel, A.B., et al., Self-amplifying RNA vaccines give equivalent protection against influenza to mRNA vaccines but at much lower doses. Molecular Therapy, 2018. 26(2): p. 446-455.
  49. Data, M.A.P.I.B., Against SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern https://investors. modernatx. com/news-releases/news-release-details/moderna-announces-positive-initial-booster-data-against-sars-cov. Accessed on May, 2021. 6.
  50. Ullah, S., et al., A review of the progress of COVID-19 vaccine development. Duzce Medical Journal, 2021. 23(Special Issue): p. 1-23.
  51. UW–Madison, F., Bharat Biotech to develop CoroFlu, a coronavirus vaccine. 2020.
  52. Guo, J.-P., et al., SARS corona virus peptides recognized by antibodies in the sera of convalescent cases. Virology, 2004. 324(2): p. 251-256.
  53. See, R.H., et al., Comparative evaluation of two severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) vaccine candidates in mice challenged with SARS coronavirus. Journal of general virology, 2006. 87(3): p. 641-650.
  54. Sarkar, B., et al., Virus like particles-A recent advancement in vaccine development. The Microbiological Society of Korea, 2019. 55(4): p. 327-343.
  55. Huang, X., et al., Escherichia coli-derived virus-like particles in vaccine development. npj Vaccines, 2017. 2(1): p. 1-9.
  56. Balkrishna, A., et al., Nanotechnology Interventions in the Management of COVID-19: Prevention, Diagnosis and Virus-Like Particle Vaccines. Vaccines, 2021. 9(10): p. 1129.
  57. Organization, W.H., World Health Organization DRAFT Landscape of COVID-19 Candidate Vaccines—14 July 2020.
  58. Dai, L. and G.F. Gao, Viral targets for vaccines against COVID-19. Nature Reviews Immunology, 2021. 21(2): p. 73-82.
  59. Mellet, J. and M.S. Pepper, A COVID-19 vaccine: big strides come with big challenges. Vaccines, 2021. 9(1): p. 39.
  60. Organization, W.H., Use of convalescent whole blood or plasma collected from patients recovered from Ebola virus disease for transfusion, as an empirical treatment during outbreaks: interim guidance for national health authorities and blood transfusion services. 2014, World Health Organization.
  61. Duan, K., et al., Effectiveness of convalescent plasma therapy in severe COVID-19 patients. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2020. 117(17): p. 9490-9496.
  62. Zhang, B., et al., Treatment with convalescent plasma for critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Chest, 2020. 158(1): p. e9-e13.
  63. Ngandu, T., et al., A 2 year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 2015. 385(9984): p. 2255-2263.
  64. Zhang, W., et al., Molecular and serological investigation of 2019-nCoV infected patients: implication of multiple shedding routes. Emerging microbes & infections, 2020. 9(1): p. 386-389.
  65. Zeng, L.-P., et al., Cross-neutralization of SARS coronavirus-specific antibodies against bat SARS-like coronaviruses. Science China Life Sciences, 2017. 60(12): p. 1399-1402.
  66. Taylor, P.C., et al., Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID-19. Nature Reviews Immunology, 2021. 21(6): p. 382-393.
  67. Ashwathi, P., N. Venkateswaramurthy, and R.S. Kumar, The New Outlook of Monoclonal Antibodies in Neutralizing Target Cells in COVID-19. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 2021. 11(5-S): p. 138-142.
  68. Hansen, J., et al., Studies in humanized mice and convalescent humans yield a SARS-CoV-2 antibody cocktail. Science, 2020. 369(6506): p. 1010-1014.
  69. Hirshberg, J.S., et al., Monoclonal antibody treatment of symptomatic COVID-19 in pregnancy: initial report. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2021. 225(6): p. 688-689.
  70. Organization, W.H., World Health Organization coronavirus disease (COVID-19) dashboard. 2020.
  71. Organization, W.H., International clinical trials registry platform (ICTRP). http://www. who. int/ictrp/en/, 2010.
  72. Chandrashekar, A., et al., SARS-CoV-2 infection protects against rechallenge in rhesus macaques. Science, 2020. 369(6505): p. 812-817.
  73. Wojda, T.R., et al., The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015: From coordinated multilateral action to effective disease containment, vaccine development, and beyond. Journal of global infectious diseases, 2015. 7(4): p. 127.
  74. Tsoukalas, D., et al., Association of nutraceutical supplements with longer telomere length. International journal of molecular medicine, 2019. 44(1): p. 218-226.
  75. Ventura, M.T., et al., Immunosenescence in aging: between immune cells depletion and cytokines up-regulation. Clinical and Molecular Allergy, 2017. 15(1): p. 1-8.
  76. Savy, M., et al., Landscape analysis of interactions between nutrition and vaccine responses in children. The Journal of nutrition, 2009. 139(11): p. 2154S-2218S.
  77. Arvas, A., Vaccination in patients with immunosuppression. Turkish Archives of Pediatrics/Türk Pediatri Arşivi, 2014. 49(3): p. 181.
  78. Eliakim, A., et al., Reduced tetanus antibody titers in overweight children. Autoimmunity, 2006. 39(2): p. 137-141.
  79. Bilal, M., Khan, M. I., Nazir, M. S., Ahmed, I., & Iqbal, H. M. Coronaviruses and COVID-19–complications and lessons learned for the future. J Pure Appl Microbiol, (2020). 14(1): 725-731.
  80. Zhou, G. and Q. Zhao, Perspectives on therapeutic neutralizing antibodies against the Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. International journal of biological sciences, 2020. 16(10): p. 1718.
  81. Kikkert, M., Innate immune evasion by human respiratory RNA viruses. Journal of innate immunity, 2020. 12(1): p. 4-20.
  82. Yang, J., et al., Prevalence of comorbidities and its effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2020. 94: p. 91-95.
  83. Rubino, F., et al., New-onset diabetes in Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine, 2020. 383(8): p. 789-790.
  84. Yang, J.-K., et al., Binding of SARS coronavirus to its receptor damages islets and causes acute diabetes. Acta diabetologica, 2010. 47(3): p. 193-199.
  85. Bao, L., et al., The pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 transgenic mice. Nature, 2020. 583(7818): p. 830-833.
  86. Hume, H.K.C. and L.H. Lua, Platform technologies for modern vaccine manufacturing. Vaccine, 2017. 35(35): p. 4480-4485.
  87. Slaoui, M. and M. Hepburn, Developing safe and effective Covid vaccines—Operation Warp Speed’s strategy and approach. New England Journal of Medicine, 2020. 383(18): p. 1701-1703.
  88. Grenham, A. and T. Villafana, Vaccine development and trials in low and lower-middle income countries: Key issues, advances and future opportunities. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 2017. 13(9): p. 2192-2199.
  89. Mazur, N.I., et al., The respiratory syncytial virus vaccine landscape: lessons from the graveyard and promising candidates. The Lancet Infectious diseases, 2018. 18(10): p. e295-e311.
  90. Kahn, J.S. and K. McIntosh, History and recent advances in coronavirus discovery. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 2005. 24(11): p. S223-S227.
  91. Fehr, A.R. and S. Perlman, Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. Coronaviruses, 2015: p. 1-23.
  92. Guan, W.-j., et al., Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in China. MedRxiv, 2020.
  93. Belouzard, S., et al., Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein. Viruses, 2012. 4(6): p. 1011-1033.
  94. Christenson, B. and M. Böttiger, Measles antibody: comparison of long-term vaccination titres, early vaccination titres and naturally acquired immunity to and booster effects on the measles virus. Vaccine, 1994. 12(2): p. 129-133.
  95. Kongsgaard, M., et al., Adaptive immune responses to booster vaccination against yellow fever virus are much reduced compared to those after primary vaccination. Scientific reports, 2017. 7(1): p. 1-14.
  96. Hanley, K.A., The double-edged sword: How evolution can make or break a live-attenuated virus vaccine. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 2011. 4(4): p. 635-643.
  97. Lauring, A.S., J.O. Jones, and R. Andino, Rationalizing the development of live attenuated virus vaccines. Nature biotechnology, 2010. 28(6): p. 573-579.
  98. Minor, P.D., Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges. Virology, 2015. 479: p. 379-392.
  99. Mok, D.Z. and K.R. Chan, The effects of pre-existing antibodies on live-attenuated viral vaccines. Viruses, 2020. 12(5): p. 520.
  100. Milstien, J., et al., Reaching international GMP standards for vaccine production: challenges for developing countries. Expert review of Vaccines, 2009. 8(5): p. 559-566.
  101. Tetro, J.A., Is COVID-19 receiving ADE from other coronaviruses? Microbes and infection, 2020. 22(2): p. 72-73.
  102. Leitner, W.W., H. Ying, and N.P. Restifo, DNA and RNA-based vaccines: principles, progress and prospects. Vaccine, 1999. 18(9-10): p. 765-777.
  103. Perlman, S. and J. Netland, Coronaviruses post-SARS: update on replication and pathogenesis. Nature reviews microbiology, 2009. 7(6): p. 439-450.

How to Cite

Zulfiqar, I. ., Wahab, A. ., Saeed, M. U. ., Hussain, N. ., Sabar, M. F. ., Bilal, M. ., & Iqbal, H. M. N. . (2022). Nanoarchitectonics: role of nanomaterials in vaccination strategies for curbing SARs-CoV-2/COVID-19 . Nanofabrication, 7.





Article Details

Most Read This Month


Copyright (c) 2022 Iqra Zulfiqar, Abdul Wahab, Muhammad Usama Saeed, Nazim Hussain, Muhammad Farooq Sabar, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.