Large scale dinoturbation in braided stream deposits: evidence from the Cretaceous Tugulu Group of the Hami area, Eastern Xinjiang, China
Keywords:Sauropod tracks, Braided stream deposits, Pterosaur-Yadan National, Geological Park
Large dinosaur tracks were recently reported from locations in the Pterosaur-Yadan National Geological Park situated about 100 km south of Hami in Xinjiang Province, China. The park comprises a substantial area in a much larger arid region comprising and extensive spectrum of Cretaceous, siliciclastic, Tugulu Group, lithofacies representing proximal, basin margin, alluvial fan and braided stream deposits, grading into alluvial plain, deltaic and lacustrine facies near the depocenter. Due to the difficulties of conducting detailed geological surveys in such a vast and inhospitable area, definitive resolution of the litho-, bio- and chrono-stratigraphy is challenging in some areas, and yet to be published in detail. Nevertheless, the occurrence of large dinosaur tracks and dinoturbated units, here interpreted as sauropodan, in association with root casts, dinosaur bone and fossil wood, points to the potential of this frontier area to yield valuable paleontological information, and show that flora and fauna were found in arid braided stream systems away from the lacustrine depocenters where body fossils are more abundant and better known.
Academy of Prospecting and Developing, Xinjiang Bureau of Petroleum. (1977). Editorial Group of the Regional Stratigraphic Scale of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (internal publications), vol. 1 (Altay and Junggar).
Academy of Prospecting and Developing, Xinjiang Bureau of Petroleum. (1996). Achievements in the Study on Cretaceous Biostratigraphy of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang (internal publications).
Academy of Prospecting and Developing, Xinjiang Bureau of Petroleum. (1997). Annual Reports for 1996 (Exploration volume) (internal publications).
Brusatte, S. L., Benson, R. B., & Xu, X. (2012). A reassessment of Kelmayisaurus petrolicus, a large theropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 57(1), 65-72. https://doi.org/10.4202/app.2010.0125
Difley, R. L., & Ekdale, A. A. (2002). Footprints of Utah's last dinosaurs: track beds in the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) North Horn Formation of the Wasatch Plateau, central Utah. Palaios, 17(4), 327-346. https://doi.org/10.1669/0883-1351(2002)017%3C0327:FOUSLD%3E2.0.CO;2
Dong, Z. M. (1973). Dinosaurs from Wuerho. Memoirs of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropolgy. Academia Sinica, 11, 45–52.
Dong, Z. M. (2001). Mesozoic fossil vertebrates from the Junggar Basin and Turpan Basin, Xinjiang, China. In: Sun, G., Mosbrugger, V., Ashraf, A.R., Wang, Y. (Eds.), The Advanced Study of Prehistory Life and Geology of Junggar Basin, Xinjiang China. Proceedings of Sino-German Cooperation Symposium on the Prehistory and Geology of Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, Urumqi, pp. 95–103.
Gu, Y. F., Ma, M. F., Su, S. L., Xu, H. M., Hu, B., Yao, W. J. (2003). Lithofacies paleogeography of the Cretaceous in the Junggar Basin. Petroleum Geology and Experiment, 25(4), 337–347.
He, Q., Xing, L., Zhang, J., Lockley, M. G., Klein, H., Persons Iv, W. S., ... & Jia, C. (2013). New Early Cretaceous Pterosaur‐Bird Track Assemblage from Xinjiang, China: Palaeoethology and Palaeoenvironment. Acta Geologica Sinica‐English Edition, 87(6), 1477-1485. https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-6724.12151
Hendrix, M. S., Graham, S. A., Carroll, A. R., Sobel, E. R., McKnight, C. L., Schulein, B. J., & Wang, Z. (1992). Sedimentary record and climatic implications of recurrent deformation in the Tian Shan: Evidence from Mesozoic strata of the north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan basins, northwest China. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 104(1), 53-79. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1992)104%3C0053:SRACIO%3E2.3.CO;2
Li, S. L., Yu, X. H., Tan, C. P., Steel, R., & Hu, X. F. (2014). Jurassic sedimentary evolution of southern Junggar Basin: Implication for palaeoclimate changes in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Journal of Palaeogeography, 3(2), 145-161. https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1261.2014.00049
Lockley, M. G. (1991). Tracking dinosaurs: a new look at an ancient world. Cambridge. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Lockley, M. G., Hunt, A. P. and Meyer, C. (1994). Vertebrate Tracks and the Ichnofacies Concept: Implications for Paleoecology and Palichnostratigraphy. In Donovan, S. (ed.), The paleobiology of trace fossils (pp. 241–268). New York, USA: Wiley and Sons.
Lockley, M., Wright, J., White, D., Matsukawa, M., Jianjun, L., Lu, F., & Hong, L. (2002). The first sauropod trackways from China. Cretaceous Research, 23(3), 363-381. https://doi.org/10.1006/cres.2002.1005
Mateer, N. J., & Pei-ji, C. (1992). A review of the nonmarine Cretaceous-Tertiary transition in China. Cretaceous research, 13(1), 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/0195-6671(92)90028-O
Rauhut, O. W., & Xu, X. (2005). The small theropod dinosaurs Tugulusaurus and Phaedrolosaurus from the Early Cretaceous of Xinjiang, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 25(1), 107-118. https://doi.org/10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0107:TSTDTA]2.0.CO;2
Wang, X., Kellner, A. W., Jiang, S., Wang, Q., Ma, Y., Paidoula, Y., ... & Li, N. (2014). Sexually dimorphic tridimensionally preserved pterosaurs and their eggs from China. Current Biology, 24(12), 1323-1330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.04.054
Wang, X., Kellner, A. W., Jiang, S., Cheng, X., Wang, Q., Ma, Y., ... & Li, N. (2017). Egg accumulation with 3D embryos provides insight into the life history of a pterosaur. Science, 358(6367), 1197-1201. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan2329
Wang, Y., Jia, D., Zhang, H., Yuan, B., Wang, H., Wei, C., ... & Yu, G. (2019). Spatial and temporal associations of traps and sources: Insights into exploration in the southern Junggar foreland basin, northwestern China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 104078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2019.104078
Wilson, J. A., & Carrano, M. T. (1999). Titanosaurs and the origin of “wide-gauge” trackways: a biomechanical and systematic perspective on sauropod locomotion. Paleobiology, 25(2), 252-267. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0094837300026543
Xinjiang Institution Geological Survey. (2003). Xinjiang East Tianshan K46C002002 (Wupu unit) 1: 250000 geological map and regional geological survey report. Urumqi: Xinjiang Institution Geological Survey.
Xing, L. D., Harris, J. D., Jia, C. K., Luo, Z. J., Wang, S. N., & An, J. F. (2011). Early Cretaceous bird-dominated and dinosaur footprint assemblages from the northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China. Palaeoworld, 20(4), 308-321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palwor.2011.01.001
Xing, L., Lockley, M. G., McCrea, R. T., Gierliński, G. D., Buckley, L. G., Zhang, J., ... & Jia, C. (2013). First record of Deltapodus tracks from the Early Cretaceous of China. Cretaceous Research, 42, 55-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2013.01.006
Xing, L. D., Lockley, M. G., Klein, H., Zhang, J. P., He, Q., Divay, J. D., ... & Jia, C. K. (2013). Dinosaur, bird and pterosaur footprints from the Lower Cretaceous of Wuerhe asphaltite area, Xinjiang, China, with notes on overlapping track relationships. Palaeoworld, 22(1-2), 42-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palwor.2013.03.001
Xing, L., Avanzini, M., Lockley, M. G., Miyashita, T., Klein, H., Zhang, J., ... & Jia, C. (2014). Early Cretaceous turtle tracks and skeletons from the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China. Palaios, 29(4), 137-144. https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2014.012
Xing, L., Li, D., Lockley, M. G., Marty, D., Zhang, J., Persons, W. S., ... & Kümmell, S. B. (2015). Dinosaur natural track casts from the Lower Cretaceous Hekou Group in the Lanzhou-Minhe Basin, Gansu, northwest China: ichnology, track formation, and distribution. Cretaceous Research, 52, 194-205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2014.10.001
Xing, L., Lockley, M. G., Marty, D., Zhang, J., Wang, Y., Klein, H., ... & Gierliński, G. D. (2015). An ornithopod-dominated tracksite from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation (Barremian–Albian) of Qijiang, South-Central China: new discoveries, ichnotaxonomy, preservation and palaeoecology. PloS One, 10(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141059
Xing, L. D., Lockley, M. G., Wang, F. P., Hu, X., Luo, S., Zhang, J., ... & Wang, X. (2015). Stone flowers explained as dinosaur undertracks: unusual ichnites from the Lower Cretaceous Jiaguan Formation, Qijiang District, Chongqing, China. Geological Bulletin of China, 34(5), 885-890.
Xing, L. D., Marty, D., You, H. L., Li, D. Q., Klein, H., Knaust, D., Zhang, J. P., McCrea, R. T., Persons, W. S. (2017). Complex in–substrate dinosaur (Sauropoda, Ornithopoda) foot pathways revealed by deep natural track casts from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou and Zhonggou formations, Gansu Province, China. Ichnos, 24(3), 163–178.
Xing, L. D., Lockley, M. G., Klein, H., Wang, T. (In review). Sauropod tracks from the Middle Jurassic Chuanjie Formation of Yunnan Province and the narrow to wide gauge sauropod trackways from China. Palaeoworld.
Zhou, Z. Y., & Dean, W. T. (1996). Phanerozoic geology of Northwest China. Beijing: Science Press.
How to Cite
Authors retain copyright over the materials, which are published under an Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-ND 4.0) license.