In vitro effectiveness of antimicrobial properties of propolis and chlorhexidine on oral pathogens: A comparative study

effectiveness of antimicrobial properties of propolis and chlorhexidine on oral pathogens

Authors

  • Hadis Tavafi Biology Department, Faculty of science, Malayer University, Malayer. Iran.
  • Maryam- sadat Sadrzadeh-Afshar Oral & Maxillofacial Medicine Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Aja University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
  • Soroush Niroomand Oral & Maxillofacial Medicine Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Aja University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37819/biosis.001.03.0062

Keywords:

Oral pathogens, Propolis, Chlorhexidine

Abstract

Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent infectious oral conditions in the present century, and it is necessary to conduct research to find a solution to overcome these diseases. A variety of microbial strains of bacteria and fungi are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. The use of chemical agents such as mouthwashes is one of the strategies to control these diseases. The purpose of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial effects of propolis and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on the bacterial strains of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the yeast strain of Candida albicans using the broth microdilution method. The results showed the inhibitory and microbicidal activities of the two substances against the tested microbial strains. The antibacterial and antifungal effects of CHX were more effective reported in this study than that of propolis against the studied pathogens. The results of this study also indicated that the propolis was less effective in inhibiting bacterial growth than the CHX. In addition, the combination of these two solutions had a synergistic effect on inhibition of other studied strains, with the exception of C. albicans and S. aureus. There is a need for further research on strains isolated from oral biofilm to achieve complementary results.

References

Agarwal, G., Vemanaradhya, G. G., & Mehta, D. S. (2012). Evaluation of chemical composition and efficacy of Chinese propolis extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study. Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, 3(3), 256. https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2F0976-237X.103614

Akca, A. E., Akca, G., Topçu, F. T., Macit, E., Pikdöken, L., & Özgen, I. Ş. (2016). The comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of propolis with chlorhexidine against oral pathogens: An in vitro study. BioMed research international, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3627463

Al‐Tannir, M. A., & Goodman, H. S. (1994). A review of chlorhexidine and its use in special populations. Special Care in Dentistry, 14(3), 116-122. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-4505.1994.tb01116.x

Ardu, S., Braut, V., Gutemberg, D., Krejci, I., Dietschi, D., & Feilzer, A. J. (2010). A long-term laboratory test on staining susceptibility of esthetic composite resin materials. Quintessence International, 41(8).

Barkvoll, P., & Attramadal, A. (1989). Effect of nystatin and chlorhexidine digluconate on Candida albicans. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, 67(3), 279-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-4220(89)90354-X

Bhandari, S., Ashwini, T., & Patil, C. R. (2014). An in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of 2% chlorhexidine gel, propolis and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis in human root dentin. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 8(11), ZC60. https://dx.doi.org/10.7860%2FJCDR%2F2014%2F10359.5144

Björkner, B. E. (1994). Industrial airborne dermatoses. Dermatologic clinics, 12(3), 501-509. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0733-8635(18)30154-2

Burdock, G. (1998). Review of the biological properties and toxicity of bee propolis (propolis). Food and Chemical toxicology, 36(4), 347-363. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(97)00145-2

Camacho-Alonso, F., Salmeron-Lozano, P., & Martinez-Beneyto, Y. (2017). Effects of photodynamic therapy, 2% chlorhexidine, triantibiotic mixture, propolis and ozone on root canals experimentally infected with Enterococcus faecalis: an in vitro study. Odontology, 105(3), 338-346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10266-016-0271-4

Carbajal Mejía, J. B. (2014). Antimicrobial effects of calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine, and propolis on E nterococcus faecalis and C andida albicans. Journal of investigative and clinical dentistry, 5(3), 194-200. https://doi.org/10.1111/jicd.12041

Cockerill, F. R. (2011). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: twenty-first informational supplement: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).

Coleman, D. C., O'Donnell, M. J., Boyle, M., & Russell, R. (2010). Microbial biofilm control within the dental clinic: reducing multiple risks. Journal of Infection Prevention, 11(6), 192-198. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1757177410376845

Costa, E. M. M. d. B., Evangelista, A. P. d. A., Medeiros, A. C. D. d., Dametto, F. R., & Carvalho, R. A. d. (2012). In vitro evaluation of the root canal cleaning ability of plant extracts and their antimicrobial action. Brazilian Oral Research, 26(3), 215-221. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-83242012000300006

De Luca, M. P., FREIRES, I. A., Gala-Garcia, A., Santos, V. R., Vale, M. P., ALENCAR, S. M. d., & Rosalen, P. L. (2017). The anti-caries activity and toxicity of an experimental propolis-containing varnish. Brazilian Oral Research, 31. https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2017.vol31.0045

Dettenkofer, M., Wenzler, S., Amthor, S., Antes, G., Motschall, E., & Daschner, F. D. (2004). Does disinfection of environmental surfaces influence nosocomial infection rates? A systematic review. American journal of infection control, 32(2), 84-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2003.07.006

Diab, M., Zaazou, M., Mubarak, E., & Olaa, M. (2007). Effect of five commercial mouthrinses on the microhardness and color stability of two resin composite restorative materials. Aust J Basic Appl Sci, 1(4), 667-674.

Dobrowolski, J. W., Vohora, S., Sharma, K., Shah, S. A., Naqvi, S., & Dandiya, P. (1991). Antibacterial, antifungal, antiamoebic, antiinflammatory and antipyretic studies on propolis bee products. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 35(1), 77-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(91)90135-Z

Duarte, S., Koo, H., Bowen, W. H., Hayacibara, M. F., Cury, J. A., Ikegaki, M., & Rosalen, P. L. (2003). Effect of a novel type of propolis and its chemical fractions on glucosyltransferases and on growth and adherence of mutans streptococci. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 26(4), 527-531. https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.26.527

Ebrahimi, H., Pourshahidi, S., Sahraeian, N., & Motamedifar, M. (2014). A Comparative In Vitro Study of the Effects of Irsha and Chlorhexidine Mouthwashes and Acyclovir on HSV-1. Journal of Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 32(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.22037/jds.v32i1.24752

Ferretti, G. A., Hansen, I. A., Whittenburg, K., Brown, A. T., Lillich, T. T., & Ash, R. C. (1987). Therapeutic use of chlorhexidine in bone marrow transplant patients: case studies. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, 63(6), 683-687. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-4220(87)90371-9

Gebara, E. C., Lima, L. A., & Mayer, M. (2002). Propolis antimicrobial activity against periodontopathic bacteria. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 33(4), 365-369. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822002000400018

Gürgan, C. A., Zaim, E., Bakirsoy, I., & Soykan, E. (2006). Short‐term side effects of 0.2% alcohol‐free chlorhexidine mouthrinse used as an adjunct to non‐surgical periodontal treatment: a double‐blind clinical study. Journal of periodontology, 77(3), 370-384. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2006.050141

Haffajee, A., Cugini, M., Dibart, S., Smith, C., Kent Jr, R., & Socransky, S. (1997). The effect of SRP on the clinical and microbiological parameters of periodontal diseases. Journal of clinical periodontology, 24(5), 324-334. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051X.1997.tb00765.x

Hagh Negahdar, A., Lohrasb, S., & Khojastepour, L. (2017). Knowledge, Attitude and Performance of Shiraz General Dentists about Infection Control Principles during Preparing Intraoral Radiographies. Journal of Fasa University of Medical Sciences, 6(4), 447-457.

Hausen, B., Wollenweber, E., Senff, H., & Post, B. (1987). Propolis allergy: (I). Origin, properties, usage and literature review. Contact dermatitis, 17(3), 163-170. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1987.tb02699.x

Herrera, D., Sanz, M., Jepsen, S., Needleman, I., & Roldán, S. (2002). A systematic review on the effect of systemic antimicrobials as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontitis patients. Journal of clinical periodontology, 29, 136-159. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-051X.29.s3.8.x

Ikeno, K., Ikeno, T., & Miyazawa, C. (1991). Effects of propolis on dental caries in rats. Caries Research, 25(5), 347-351.

Jaiswal, N., Sinha, D.-J., Singh, U.-P., Singh, K., Jandial, U.-A., & Goel, S. (2017). Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of Chitosan, Chlorhexidine, Propolis and Sodium hypochlorite on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm: An in vitro study. Journal of clinical and experimental dentistry, 9(9), e1066. https://dx.doi.org/10.4317%2Fjced.53777

Koo, H., Gomes, B., Rosalen, P. L., Ambrosano, G., Park, Y. K., & Cury, J. A. (2000). In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis and Arnica montana against oral pathogens. Archives of Oral Biology, 45(2), 141-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9969(99)00117-X

Koru, O., Toksoy, F., Acikel, C. H., Tunca, Y. M., Baysallar, M., Guclu, A. U., . . . Tanyuksel, M. (2007). In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis samples from different geographical origins against certain oral pathogens. Anaerobe, 13(3-4), 140-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2007.02.001

Kujumgiev, A., Tsvetkova, I., Serkedjieva, Y., Bankova, V., Christov, R., & Popov, S. (1999). Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity of propolis of different geographic origin. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 64(3), 235-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00131-7

Lang, N., & Brecx, M. C. (1986). Chlorhexidine digluconate–an agent for chemical plaque control and prevention of gingival inflammation. Journal of Periodontal Research, 21, 74-89. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0765.1986.tb01517.x

Langslet, A., Olsen, I., Lie, S., & Løkken, P. (1974). Chlorhexidine treatment of oral candidiasis in seriously diseased children. Acta Pædiatrica, 63(6), 809-811. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.1974.tb04868.x

Lemos, J. A., & Burne, R. A. (2008). A model of efficiency: stress tolerance by Streptococcus mutans. Microbiology (Reading, England), 154(Pt 11), 3247. https://dx.doi.org/10.1099%2Fmic.0.2008%2F023770-0

Marcucci, M. (1995). Propolis: chemical composition, biological properties and therapeutic activity. Apidologie, 26(2), 83-99.

Mariotti, A. J., & Rumpf, D. A. (1999). Chlorhexidine‐induced changes to human gingival fibroblast collagen and non‐collagen protein production. Journal of periodontology, 70(12), 1443-1448. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.1999.70.12.1443

Martins, M. L., Monteiro, A. S. N., Guimarães, J. E. C., Guimarães, M. B. d. C. T., da Silva, R. F., Cabral, L. M., . . . Maia, L. C. (2019). Cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of a red propolis mouthwash, with or without fluoride, on the growth of a cariogenic biofilm. Archives of Oral Biology, 107, 104512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.104512

Maza, J. L., Elguezabal, N., Prado, C., Ellacuría, J., Soler, I., & Pontón, J. (2002). Candida albicans adherence to resin-composite restorative dental material: influence of whole human saliva. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology, 94(5), 589-592. https://doi.org/10.1067/moe.2002.126024

Mehdipour, M., Gholizadeh, N., Sadrzadeh-Afshar, M.-S., Hematpoor, N., Kalaee, P., Hakemi Vala, M., & Namazi, Z. (2019). In Vitro Comparison of the Efficacy of Cumin Extract and Fluconazole Against Candida Strains. Journal of Islamic Dental Association of Iran, 31(2), 98-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.30699/jidai.31.2.98

Mehdipour, M., Hakemi Vala, M., Sadrzadeh-Afshar, M.-S., & Gholizadeh, N. (2018). In vitro antifungal effect of cinnamon extract on candida species. Caspian Journal of Dental Research, 7(2), 49-53.

Mello, B. C., & Hubinger, M. D. (2012). Antioxidant activity and polyphenol contents in B razilian green propolis extracts prepared with the use of ethanol and water as solvents in different p H values. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 47(12), 2510-2518. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03129.x

Moreno, M. N., Isla, M., Cudmani, N., Vattuone, M., & Sampietro, A. (1999). Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 68(1-3), 97-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00051-3

Newman, M. G., Takei, H., Klokkevold, P. R., & Carranza, F. A. (2011). Carranza's clinical periodontology: Elsevier health sciences.

O'Toole, G. A., & Kolter, R. (1998). Initiation of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 proceeds via multiple, convergent signalling pathways: a genetic analysis. Molecular microbiology, 28(3), 449-461. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998.00797.x

Overholser, C. D., Meiller, T. F., DePaola, L. G., Minah, G. E., & Niehaus, C. (1990). Comparative effects of 2 mouthrinses on the development of supragingival dental plaque and gingivitis. Journal of clinical periodontology, 17(8), 575-579. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-051X.1990.tb01108.x

Pereira-Cenci, T., Del Bel Cury, A. A., Crielaard, W., & Ten Cate, J. M. (2008). Development of Candida-associated denture stomatitis: new insights. Journal of applied oral science, 16(2), 86-94. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-77572008000200002

Prasanna, S. V., & Lakshmanan, R. (2016). Characteristics, uses and side effects of chlorhexidine-a review. J Dent Med Sci, 15(6), 57-59.

Prospero, E., Savini, S., & Annino, I. (2003). Microbial aerosol contamination of dental healthcare workers' faces and other surfaces in dental practice. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 24(2), 139-141. https://doi.org/10.1086/502172

Quivey Jr, R. G., Kuhnert, W. L., & Hahn, K. (2000). Adaptation of oral streptococci to low pH. Advances in Microbial Physiology, 42, 239-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2911(00)42004-7

Saha, S., Nair, R., & Asrani, H. (2015). Comparative Evaluation of Propolis, Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine, Calcium Hydroxide and Curcuma Longa Extract as Intracanal Medicament Against E. faecalis–An Invitro Study. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 9(11), ZC19. https://dx.doi.org/10.7860%2FJCDR%2F2015%2F14093.6734

Santos, F., Bastos, E., Uzeda, M., Carvalho, M., Farias, L., Moreira, E., & Braga, F. (2002). Antibacterial activity of Brazilian propolis and fractions against oral anaerobic bacteria. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 80(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00003-X

Sforcin, J., Fernandes Jr, A., Lopes, C., Bankova, V., & Funari, S. (2000). Seasonal effect on Brazilian propolis antibacterial activity. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 73(1-2), 243-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00320-2

Shen, Y., Stojicic, S., Qian, W., Olsen, I., & Haapasalo, M. (2010). The synergistic antimicrobial effect by mechanical agitation and two chlorhexidine preparations on biofilm bacteria. Journal of endodontics, 36(1), 100-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2009.09.018

Singh, M., Singh, S., Salgar, A. R., Prathibha, N., Chandrahari, N., & Swapna, L. A. (2019). An in vitro comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia Juice, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine on Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. J. Contemp. Dent. Pract, 20(1), 40-45. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2473

Sonmez, S., Kirilmaz, L., Yucesoy, M., Yücel, B., & Yilmaz, B. (2005). The effect of bee propolis on oral pathogens and human gingival fibroblasts. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 102(3), 371-376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.035

Takaisi-Kikuni, N. B., & Schilcher, H. (1994). Electron microscopic and microcalorimetric investigations of the possible mechanism of the antibacterial action of a defined propolis provenance. Planta Medica, 60(03), 222-227. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-959463

Tomás-Barberán, F. A., García-Viguera, C., Vit-Olivier, P., Ferreres, F., & Tomás-Lorente, F. (1993). Phytochemical evidence for the botanical origin of tropical propolis from Venezuela. Phytochemistry, 34(1), 191-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)90804-5

Varoni, E., Tarce, M., Lodi, G., & Carrassi, A. (2012). Chlorhexidine (CHX) in dentistry: state of the art. Minerva Stomatol, 61(9), 399-419.

Xiao, Y., Fan, Y., Wang, W., Gu, H., Zhou, N., & Shen, J. (2014). Novel GO-COO-β-CD/CA inclusion: its blood compatibility, antibacterial property and drug delivery. Drug delivery, 21(5), 362-369. https://doi.org/10.3109/10717544.2013.846997

Downloads

Published

2020-10-15

How to Cite

Tavafi, H., Sadrzadeh-Afshar, M.-. sadat ., & Niroomand, S. . (2020). In vitro effectiveness of antimicrobial properties of propolis and chlorhexidine on oral pathogens: A comparative study: effectiveness of antimicrobial properties of propolis and chlorhexidine on oral pathogens. Biosis:Biological Systems, 1(3), 116-125. https://doi.org/10.37819/biosis.001.03.0062