In vitro effectiveness of antimicrobial properties of propolis and chlorhexidine on oral pathogens: A comparative study

effectiveness of antimicrobial properties of propolis and chlorhexidine on oral pathogens


  • Hadis Tavafi Biology Department, Faculty of science, Malayer University, Malayer. Iran.
  • Maryam- sadat Sadrzadeh-Afshar Oral & Maxillofacial Medicine Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Aja University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
  • Soroush Niroomand Oral & Maxillofacial Medicine Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Aja University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.



Oral pathogens, Propolis, Chlorhexidine


Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent infectious oral conditions in the present century, and it is necessary to conduct research to find a solution to overcome these diseases. A variety of microbial strains of bacteria and fungi are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. The use of chemical agents such as mouthwashes is one of the strategies to control these diseases. The purpose of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial effects of propolis and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on the bacterial strains of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the yeast strain of Candida albicans using the broth microdilution method. The results showed the inhibitory and microbicidal activities of the two substances against the tested microbial strains. The antibacterial and antifungal effects of CHX were more effective reported in this study than that of propolis against the studied pathogens. The results of this study also indicated that the propolis was less effective in inhibiting bacterial growth than the CHX. In addition, the combination of these two solutions had a synergistic effect on inhibition of other studied strains, with the exception of C. albicans and S. aureus. There is a need for further research on strains isolated from oral biofilm to achieve complementary results.


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How to Cite

Tavafi, H., Sadrzadeh-Afshar, M.-. sadat ., & Niroomand, S. . (2020). In vitro effectiveness of antimicrobial properties of propolis and chlorhexidine on oral pathogens: A comparative study: effectiveness of antimicrobial properties of propolis and chlorhexidine on oral pathogens. Biosis:Biological Systems, 1(3), 116-125.