The role of TrkB receptor signaling in Alzheimer’s disease
Kaiwu He, Lulin Nie , Zhongliang Dai, Shupeng Li, Xifei Yang, Gongping Liu
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders among the elderly. However, there is no reliable drug for the treatment of AD, which is largely due to the unknown mechanisms and the lack of credible drug targets. Some studies demonstrated the hat the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF/TrkB) signaling pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for AD. As the most widely studied neurotrophin in the brain, BDNF has a high affinity for TrkB receptor and plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal survival, growth, and synaptic plasticity. Mechanistically, TrkB signaling cascade is considered to be the most important way in which BDNF exerts neuroprotective effects. The expression of TrkB receptor was also found to be significantly decreased in AD patients and AD animals compared with the control, suggesting the involvement of TrkB receptor and TrkB-dependent signal in AD pathogenesis. In this review, we aim to discuss the possible role of TrkB-dependent signal in AD pathogenesis, focusing on three major downstream pathways including phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), and phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) pathways.
Diya Zhang, Yunfan Li, Yucheng Wang, Rui Ju , Lei Guo
Gliomas are one of the most common incurable brain tumors in adults with poor prognosis. Attempts at modeling human gliomas over the past decades have not only improved our knowledge of glioma biology but also boosted the development of therapeutic strategies. Despite great endeavors, gliomas are not responsive to the current tumor treatments, such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy due to their high inter- and intra-heterogenic tumor microenvironment (TME) and immune suppressive landscape. Therefore, it is significant to utilize suitable models to investigate the tumorigenesis, progression, and invasion of gliomas and evaluate potential therapies. Ideally, glioma models should fully recapitulate the genetic alterations and histological characteristics of the parental tumor, as well as reproduce the interactions between the tumor and its TME. In this review, we will discuss and compare the pros and cons of the current glioma models including traditional mouse models, established cell lines, newly 3D-cultured organoids, and 3D bioprinting glioma models in glioma pathogenesis research and therapy evaluation.
Exploring Links between Pineal Gland Calcification and Central Nervous System Disease
Xinnan Liu, Haotian Liu
Central nervous system disease is globally common with dysfunction of the brain and spinal cord, which significantly affects the quality of life, such as sleep disturbances. Pineal gland is pivotal in regulating sleep cycles and circadian rhythms. And melatonin, secreted by pineal gland, promotes neurodevelopment and maintains neurohomeostasis, which is also pivotal in the modulation of central nervous system disorders. In recent years, studies have found that patients with central nervous system damage often have degeneration of the pineal gland, characterized by a decrease in pineal gland volume, reduced melatonin secretion, and even parenchymal calcification. An increasing number of Alzheimer's disease patients have been observed to exhibit pineal gland calcification. Research suggests that sleep disturbances accompanying central nervous system disorders can be attributed to the degeneration of pineal gland function, indicating a potential contribution of gland calcification to central nervous system diseases. Here, we review the recent research on pineal gland calculi and discuss the potential relationship between pineal gland calcification and various central nervous system diseases, contributing to a deeper understanding of the intricate mechanisms underlying neurological disorders.
Mazor X Robot-Assisted Pedicle Screw Placement: A Case Series
Hongyi Wang, Yueqi Du, Linpeng Li, Can Zhang, Wanru Duan, Zan Chen
Pedicle screw placement is a well-established procedure in spine surgeries, and the utilization of robots in spinal surgery has been on the rise. This study aims to investigate the accuracy and screw placement time associated with the use of Mazor X robots in robotic-assisted pedicle screw placement. A retrospective case study was conducted on 12 patients with lumbar spine disease who underwent Mazor X robot-assisted surgery. Screw placement accuracy was assessed using the Gertzbein-Robinson classification. Additionally, total screw placement time and fluoroscopy time were documented for analysis. A total of 60 screws were placed in the 12 patients who received robotic-assisted pedicle screw placement. Of these screws, 98.3% were found to be within the safe zone. As the cases progressed, there was a noticeable decrease in total screw placement time and fluoroscopy time. Our findings suggest that Mazor X robotic-assisted spine surgery boasts high accuracy rates and demonstrates a decreasing trend in screw placement time and fluoroscopy time. To the best of our knowledge, our institution is the first in China to employ the Mazor X robot for pedicle screw placement surgeries and to document its associated characteristics.
Brain metastases (BM) will develop in 30-50% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in the course of their illness. Systemic treatment is recommended for most advanced-stage NSCLC patients with BM but the prognosis remains poor. The prognosis and management of primary lung tumor resection are still a debated topic in this complex clinical setting. The present study will gather and review related research evidence. The survival benefit, patient selection and proper surgical strategy of primary lung tumor resection will be summarized and discussed in the treatment for NSCLC patients with BM.
Anterior controllable antedisplacement and fusion as revision surgery for the treatment of OPLL after anterior and posterior decompression: A case report
Tianyu Jin, Wanru Duan, Zan Chen
Background: In cases of cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), when initial anterior or posterior decompression fails to yield satisfactory results, the alternative approach is often chosen for revision surgery. Nevertheless, there is a lack of reported information regarding the treatment and prognosis of patients with complex OPLL who have undergone both anterior and posterior decompression but experienced relapse.
Case presentation: A 79-year-old male patient presented with numbness, weakness, and muscle atrophy in the right upper extremity, along with weakness in the right lower extremity. Initial assessment on admission revealed a Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score of 7. The patient previously underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) 25 years ago for spinal stenosis, followed by posterior laminectomy as revision surgery. After experiencing recurrent symptoms following a fall one year ago, the patient underwent a second revision surgery using the anterior controllable antedisplacement and fusion (ACAF) technique which led to symptom improvement, and resulted in a postoperative JOA score of 14 at 3 months of follow-up.
Conclusions: Treatment of OPLL patients with symptom recurrence after traditional anterior and posterior decompression is challenging. ACAF offers a viable solution for managing this complex case.